Russia and Norway make progress on cross-border environmental problems - Bellona

Northwest Russia - Mon, 10/09/2017 - 20:07

Bellona

Russia and Norway make progress on cross-border environmental problems
Bellona
Its daughter plant, the Kola Mining and Metallurgy Company, has belched sulfur dioxide throughout Northwest Russia and into Scandinavia since before the collapse of the Soviet Union. The emissions have long been a source of bitter argument between ...

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Six Features of the Disinformation Age

StopFake.org - Mon, 10/09/2017 - 18:54

By Kelly Born, for Project Syndicate

We are living in a brave new world of disinformation and propaganda, and as long as only its purveyors have the data needed to understand it, the responses we craft will remain inadequate. Because they are also likely to be poorly targeted, they may even end up doing more harm than good.

Concern about the proliferation of disinformation, misinformation, and propaganda has reached the point where many governments are proposing new legislation. But the solutions on offer reflect an inadequate understanding of the problem – and could have negative unintended consequences.

This past June, Germany’s parliament adopted a law that includes a provision for fines of up to €50 million ($59 million) on popular sites like Facebook and YouTube, if they fail to remove “obviously illegal” content, such as hate speech and incitements to violence, within 24 hours. Singapore has announced plans to introduce similar legislation next year to tackle “fake news.”

In July, the US Congress approved sweeping sanctions against Russia, partly in response to its alleged sponsorship of disinformation campaigns aiming to influence US elections. Dialogue between the US Congress and Facebook, Twitter, and Google has intensified in the last few weeks, as clear evidence of campaign-ad purchases by Russian entities has emerged.

Such action is vital if we are to break the vicious circle of disinformation and political polarization that undermines democracies’ ability to function. But while these legislative interventions all target digital platforms, they often fail to account for at least six ways in which today’s disinformation and propaganda differ from yesterday’s.

First, there is the democratization of information creation and distribution. As Rand Waltzman, formerly of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, recently noted, any individual or group can now communicate with – and thereby influence – large numbers of others online. This has its benefits, but it also carries serious risks – beginning with the loss of journalistic standards of excellence, like those typically enforced within established media organizations. Without traditional institutional media gatekeepers, political discourse is no longer based on a common set of facts.

The second feature of the digital information age – a direct byproduct of democratization – is information socialization. Rather than receiving our information directly from institutional gatekeepers, who, despite often-flawed execution, were fundamentally committed to meeting editorial standards, today we acquire it via peer-to-peer sharing.

Such peer networks may elevate content based on factors like clicks or engagement among friends, rather than accuracy or importance. Moreover, information that is filtered through networks of friends can result in an echo chamber of news that reinforces one’s own biases (though there is considerable uncertainty about how serious a problem this represents). It also means that people who otherwise might consume news in moderation are being inundated with political polemic and debate, including extreme positions and falsehoods, which heighten the risk of misinforming or polarizing wider swaths of the public.

The third element of today’s information landscape is atomization – the divorce of individual news stories from brand or source. Previously, readers could easily distinguish between non-credible sources, like the colorful and sensational tabloids in the checkout line at the supermarket, and credible ones, such as longstanding local or national newspapers. Now, by contrast, an article shared by a friend or family member from The New York Times may not look all that different than one from a conspiracy theorist’s blog. And, as a recent study from the American Press Institute found, the original source of an article matters less to readers than who in their network shares the link.

The fourth element that must inform the fight against disinformation is anonymity in information creation and distribution. Online news often lacks not only a brand, but also a byline. This obscures potential conflicts of interest, creates plausible deniability for state actors intervening in foreign information environments, and creates fertile ground for bots to thrive.

One 2015 study found that bots generate around 50% of all web traffic, with as many as 50 million Twitter users and 137 million Facebook users exhibiting non-human behaviors. Of course there are “good” bots, say, providing customer service or real-time weather updates. But there are also plenty of bad actors “gaming” online information systems to promote extreme views and inaccurate information, lending them the appearance of mainstream popularity and acceptance.

Fifth, today’s information environment is characterized by personalization. Unlike their print, radio, or even television counterparts, Internet content creators can A/B test and adapt micro-targeted messages in real-time.

“By leveraging automated emotional manipulation alongside swarms of bots, Facebook dark posts, A/B testing, and fake news networks,” according to a recent exposé, groups like Cambridge Analytica can create personalized, adaptive, and ultimately addictive propaganda. Donald Trump’s campaign was measuring responses to 40-50,000 variants of ads every day, then tailoring and targeting their messaging accordingly.

The final element separating today’s information ecosystem from that of the past, as Stanford law professor Nate Persily has observed, is sovereignty. Unlike television, print, and radio, social-media platforms like Facebook or Twitter are self-regulating – and are not very good at it. Despite the US campaign-ad controversies of the last few weeks, neither platform has yet consulted leading experts, instead seeking to solve problems in-house. It was not until mid-September that Facebook even agreed to disclose information about political campaign ads; it still refuses to offer data on other forms of disinformation.

It is this lack of data that is undermining responses to the proliferation of disinformation and propaganda, not to mention the political polarization and tribalism that they fuel. Facebook is the chief culprit: with an average of 1.32 billion daily active users, its impact is massive, yet the company refuses to give outside researchers access to the information needed to understand the most fundamental questions at the intersection of the Internet and politics. (Twitter does share data with researchers, but it remains an exception.)

We are living in a brave new world of disinformation. As long as only its purveyors have the data we need to understand it, the responses we craft will remain inadequate. And, to the extent that they are poorly targeted, they may even end up doing more harm than good.

By Kelly Born, for Project Syndicate

Kelly Born is a program officer for the Madison Initiative at the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation.

Categories: World News

Facebook Is Starting a New Test to Provide Context About Articles

StopFake.org - Mon, 10/09/2017 - 18:36

By Andrew Anker, Sara Su, and Jeff Smith, Facebook

Today we are starting a new test to give people additional context on the articles they see in News Feed. This new feature is designed to provide people some of the tools they need to make an informed decision about which stories to read, share, and trust. It reflects feedback from our community, including many publishers who collaborated on its development as part of our work through the Facebook Journalism Project.

For links to articles shared in News Feed, we are testing a button that people can tap to easily access additional information without needing to go elsewhere. The additional contextual information is pulled from across Facebook and other sources, such as information from the publisher’s Wikipedia entry, a button to follow their Page, trending articles or related articles about the topic, and information about how the article is being shared by people on Facebook. In some cases, if that information is unavailable, we will let people know, which can also be helpful context.

Helping people access this important contextual information can help them evaluate if articles are from a publisher they trust, and if the story itself is credible. This is just the beginning of the test. We’ll continue to listen to people’s feedback and work with publishers to provide people easy access to the contextual information that helps people decide which stories to read, share, and trust, and to improve the experiences people have on Facebook.

How will this impact my page?

We anticipate that most Pages won’t see any significant changes to their distribution in News Feed as a result of this test. As always, Pages should refer to our publishing best practices and continue to post stories that are relevant to their audiences and that their readers find informative.

By Andrew Anker, Sara Su, and Jeff Smith, Facebook

Categories: World News

Deliberate misconceptions about Nord Stream 2? - EUobserver

Nord Stream - Mon, 10/09/2017 - 15:27

EUobserver

Deliberate misconceptions about Nord Stream 2?
EUobserver
In his most recent article on Nord Stream 2, Alan Riley continues to make misleading claims about the legal framework for gas import pipelines. His statements squarely contradict European Commission vice-president Maros Sefcovic, energy commissioner ...
Russia may re-route Nord Stream 2: reportthenews.pl
Nord Stream-2 Non-Compliant with Energy Union?Georgia Today

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Nord Stream-2 Non-Compliant with Energy Union? - Georgia Today

Nord Stream - Mon, 10/09/2017 - 15:12

Georgia Today

Nord Stream-2 Non-Compliant with Energy Union?
Georgia Today
The official representative of the European Commission Anna-Kaisa Itkonen has said the construction of the Nord Stream-2 gas pipeline contradicts the principles of the Energy Union created by the European Union. "If Nord Stream-2 is implemented, it ...
Russia may re-route Nord Stream 2: reportthenews.pl

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StopFake #152 with Irena Chalupa

StopFake.org - Mon, 10/09/2017 - 14:24

The latest edition of StopFake News with Irena Chalupa. Among the disinformation debunked this week: Ukrainian arms flood into Poland, Ukraine to be become a black market for organ transplants, droves of Ukrainian vacationers flood into Crimea.

 

Categories: World News

Russia may re-route Nord Stream 2: report - thenews.pl

Nord Stream - Mon, 10/09/2017 - 14:22

thenews.pl

Russia may re-route Nord Stream 2: report
thenews.pl
The pipeline was to connect Russia and Germany via the Baltic sea by running parallel to the existing Nord Stream pipeline. But Denmark said it would not allow the pipeline to be built near its territorial waters, the IAR news agency reported. Nord ...
Deliberate misconceptions about Nord Stream 2?EUobserver
Nord Stream-2 Non-Compliant with Energy Union?Georgia Today

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Russia abducts activist from Ukraine, charges him with involvement in Ukrainian organization

StopFake.org - Mon, 10/09/2017 - 12:51

Oleksandr Shumkov

By Halya Coynash, Human Rights in Ukraine

Oleksandr Shumkov has become the latest Ukrainian to be abducted to Russia and imprisoned.  There is a major question mark over how the 28-year-old civic activist came to be in Russia, but it would be difficult to dispute the surreal nature of the charges.  The Ukrainian is accused of involvement in a Ukrainian organization that only Russia calls ‘extremist’, and that is entirely legal in Ukraine.

Shumkov disappeared towards the end of August, however it was only on September 26 that Larisa Shumkova received a letter from the Russian FSB for the Bryansk oblast informing her that her son was held in the Bryansk SIZO or remand prison.  The letter states that Oleksandr was detained on September 6 on suspicion of “committing a crime” under Article 282 § 2 of the Russian criminal code – ‘involvement in an extremist organization’.

Larisa Shumkova told Ukrainska Pravda that she had learned, from a Kherson separatist”, of Oleksandr’s imprisonment in Russia back at the beginning of September “.  She was frightened to harm her son by making the news public, and she and members of the right-wing movement he is close to tried to find out what had happened.

Larisa Shumkova is convinced that her son would not have voluntarily crossed into Russia and it is certainly clear that he had every reason to believe he could be in danger.  Shumkov is a former Maidan activist, a member of the Kherson branch of the Union of Ukrainian Youth in Ukraine and a contracted military servicemen for the Ukrainian Armed Forces.  All of this is sufficient in Vladimir Putin’s Russia to put the young man at risk, however there is more.  Shumkov is a ex-security guard to Dmytro Yarosh, who is now an MP, but was the leader of Right Sector.  This right-wing Ukrainian nationalist movement has long been demonized by the current Russian regime, and has been officially outlawed in Russia since early 2015.

Ukrainska Pravda cites its own sources within the Border Guard Service as saying that they “have information that the young man legally crossed the Ukrainian-Russian border, apparently by car”.

Kherson activists have now initiated a civic campaign to #FreeShumkov, since Ukraine’s SBU [Security Service] has said that this is not their business, and the Interior Ministry have done no more than promise to try to find out what has happened.  The activists have provided a bank account to help pay for a lawyer for Shumkov.

Tyzhden.ua reports that the Ukrainian consul was finally able to see Shumkov at the beginning of October, with a brief meeting soon after with an independent lawyer.  Shumkov has managed to pass on that he “ended up in Russia as the result of a provocation”.

Shumkov has clearly long taken an active civic position, with this becoming even more active during the Revolution of Dignity, or Euromaidan.  While formally part of a military unit, he was apparently deployed as a person with a higher legal education in searching for and carrying out initial probes of deserters.

It is possible that the ‘provocation’ and seizure of Shumkov is linked in some way with the earlier arrest of Denis Bakholdin, the Moscow activist and Kremlin critic who is also being held in the Bryansk SIZO.  His whereabouts were only discovered three months after he disappeared after leaving Kyiv, where he had been living, to visit his mother who was in ill-health.

Nadezhda Bakholdina has reported that her son was subjected to torture – chained with handcuffs to a radiator, beaten and kicked to get him to ‘confess’ to being a member of Right Sector (details here).

Russia began abducting and / or prosecuting Ukrainians soon after its invasion of Crimea and military aggression in Donbas.  One of the first men to be tricked into entering Russian territory, held incommunicado for 18 months and brutally tortured was Ukrainian nationalist Mykola Karpyuk, who was also linked with Yarosh.  He is serving a huge sentence on grotesquely fabricated charges, as are Ukrainian filmmaker Oleg Sentsov and civic activist Oleksandr Kolchenko.  The latter were supposed to have been part of a ‘Right Sector terrorist plot’ in occupied Crimea, with the FSB totally impervious to the lack of any evidence and the total implausibility of their ‘plot’, given Kolchenko’s extreme left-wing views.

There has been a disturbing increase over recent months of cases involving direct abduction of Ukrainians.  There is every reason to assume that Oleksiy Sizonovych, a 61-year-old pensioner was first captured by Kremlin-backed militants in the so-called ‘Luhansk people’s republic’ and taken by force to Russia.  There he was clearly put under pressure to refuse a proper lawyer and ‘confess’.  He was sentenced in July 2017 to 12 years’ imprisonment (details here).

It has long been clear that Ukrainians may be at risk of such treatment in Russian-occupied Crimea, Donbas, as well as in Russia.  The recent abduction of 19-year-old Pavlo Hryb from Belarus has extended the danger zone. Hryb was taken by force to Krasnodar where he is being held in detention without urgently needed medication.  He is facing ‘terrorism’ charges, although the lad had never once set foot in Russia, with the charges apparently over strongly critical opinions expressed in private correspondence with a young Russian girl (details here).

By Halya Coynash, Human Rights in Ukraine

Categories: World News

Rosterminalugol: digitization of transshipment technologies allows for sustainable build-up of throughput - PortNews IAA

Google News: --- Baltic Environmental - Mon, 10/09/2017 - 10:44

PortNews IAA

Rosterminalugol: digitization of transshipment technologies allows for sustainable build-up of throughput
PortNews IAA
Port Management Company LLC is Russia's major coal port holding that exercises the powers of a single executive body of largest dedicated coal ports based in the Baltic Sea region (Rosterminalugol JSC, Ust-Luga, Leningrad Region) and in the Far East ...

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News From Russia: What You Missed Over the Weekend - The Moscow Times

Northwest Russia - Mon, 10/09/2017 - 10:00

The Moscow Times

News From Russia: What You Missed Over the Weekend
The Moscow Times
Under Russian media law, the Kremlin can take “analogous measures” against American journalists and media outlets in Russia, regardless of whether they are financed privately or by the government, she said. The demand that the Kremlin's leading ...

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Fire in Moscow 'Sindika' mall prompts mass evacuation - Deutsche Welle

Northwest Russia - Mon, 10/09/2017 - 01:21

Deutsche Welle

Fire in Moscow 'Sindika' mall prompts mass evacuation
Deutsche Welle
The blaze sent a thick plume of smoke over the Russian capital on Sunday, causing traffic jams on the nearby section of Moscow's ring road. The fire reportedly started in the basement of the Sindika mall on the northwest edge of Moscow and soon ripped ...

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Without Trump Certification, Fate Of Iran Nuclear Deal Falls To Congress - Northwest Public Radio

Northwest Russia - Mon, 10/09/2017 - 01:15

Without Trump Certification, Fate Of Iran Nuclear Deal Falls To Congress
Northwest Public Radio
That was the deal made between Iran, the United States, the European Union, China, Russia, France, the U.K. and Germany. It calls for Iran to stop activities that could help it make a nuclear bomb. In exchange, global sanctions were lifted. There have ...

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Turkish army surveys Syria's Idlib before deployment: sources - Reuters

Northwest Russia - Sun, 10/08/2017 - 17:39

Reuters

Turkish army surveys Syria's Idlib before deployment: sources
Reuters
AMMAN/BEIRUT (Reuters) - A Turkish army reconnaissance team visited Syria's Idlib province on Sunday, a senior Syrian rebel said, before a planned deployment by Turkish-backed rebels to try to bolster a deal to reduce warfare in northwest Syria.

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Turkish army surveys Syria's Idlib before deployment: sources - Reuters

Northwest Russia - Sun, 10/08/2017 - 17:37

Reuters

Turkish army surveys Syria's Idlib before deployment: sources
Reuters
AMMAN/BEIRUT (Reuters) - A Turkish army reconnaissance team visited Syria's Idlib province on Sunday, a senior Syrian rebel said, before a planned deployment by Turkish-backed rebels to try to bolster a deal to reduce warfare in northwest Syria.

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Senators Say Russia Probe Is 'Incomplete'; Trump Jr. May Return To The Hill - Northwest Public Radio

Northwest Russia - Sun, 10/08/2017 - 15:59

Northwest Public Radio

Senators Say Russia Probe Is 'Incomplete'; Trump Jr. May Return To The Hill
Northwest Public Radio
Senate Intelligence Committee Chairman Richard Burr, R-N.C. (left), and committee Vice Chairman Mark Warner, D-Va., discuss the status of the committee's inquiry into Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election, at the U.S. Capitol on Wednesday.

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Fake: Ukrainians Visiting Crimea in Droves

StopFake.org - Sun, 10/08/2017 - 13:32

According to the Russian Security Service (FSB) Crimea border control, well after the end of the vacation season Ukrainians are pouring into the annexed peninsula in droves. Russia’s official news agency RIA Novosti and other publications featured several stories about this alleged late season vacation rush.

Website screenshot ria.ru

Website screenshot antifashist.com

Official Ukrainian agencies meanwhile present a somewhat different picture, as do recent sociological polls.

Tens of thousands of Ukrainians heading to Crimea, Huge tourist flow from Ukraine into Crimea, Large hotels all booked up in Crimea, 8-9 thousand Ukrainians enter Crimea daily – such were the headlines of these fake stories in such newspapers as Argumenty I Fakty, Sputnik, Rossiyskaya Gazeta, Ukraina.ru, Zvezda, RIA Novosti Ukraina, Vzglyad, Antifascist, Kharkiv News Agency and other publications.

Website screenshot mtur.rk.gov.ru

At the beginning of August Crimea’s Tourism Ministry reported that nearly 3 million people visited Crimea (2,859,000) in 2017. In September that number suddenly grew to 4.5 million. Meanwhile Russia’s federal Tourism Agency reported that as of August 30, 3.7 million people had vacationed in Crimea.

Website screenshot mtot.gov.ua

According to official Ukrainian border controls, in August 2014, 194 thousand people left Crimea and 166 thousand entered.

Many Ukrainians have property in Crimea and want to check what state that property is in, so they head to Crimea in the summer, says Deputy Minister for the Occupied Territories Yusuf Kurkchi. Furthermore, Crimea residents who are studying in Ukrainian universities return home during the summer break and head back to the Ukrainian mainland at the beginning of the school year.

Former Ukrainian Crimean Tourism Minister Alexander Liev paints a different picture of Crimea’s tourist popularity, he says that only 100 thousand Ukrainians visited Crimea in the first half of 2017. Prior to Russia’s 2014 annexation of Crimea, up to 6 million tourists visited the peninsula, 4 million of whom hailed from Ukraine.

On the eve of the summer season the Kyiv International Sociology Institute conducted a poll about Ukrainians’ summer holiday plans. Only one percent said they planned to vacation in Crimea.

 

Categories: World News

Turkish army surveys Syria's Idlib before deployment: sources - Reuters

Northwest Russia - Sun, 10/08/2017 - 12:03

Reuters

Turkish army surveys Syria's Idlib before deployment: sources
Reuters
... in northwest Syria. The deployment risks bringing Turkey and the rebels it backs into conflict with the jihadist Tahrir al-Sham rebel alliance, which dominates Idlib and surrounding areas and opposes the “de-escalation zone” agreed between Ankara ...

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Russian TV’s view on Catalonia referendum: Europe falling apart and Spain compared to Ukraine

StopFake.org - Sun, 10/08/2017 - 07:55

Screenshot from talk show Vesti Nedeli on Sunday 1 October 2017

By EU vs Disinfo

  • This is our weekly summary of the main topics on Russia’s most watched TV news channels. This week, we concentrate on the referendum in Catalonia.
  • The news shows’ agenda in Russia is carefully attuned to serve the Kremlin’s needs.
  • Therefore, following Russian state controlled media sheds light on our understanding of how the Kremlin seeks to influence the Russian-speaking audience in Russia and beyond. Read our story here.
  • Our monitoring of pro-Kremlin disinformation also reveals that many of the themes set out in Russia’s most popular state TV news programmes find their way into European outlets.

Officially, Russia’s stance on the referendum in Catalonia 1 October was that it is an “internal matter”for Spain. But Russia’s state TV delivered several other messages to the audience.

  1. Message: the threat that Europe will fall apart

Talk shows raised the alert, claiming that there is a threat that all of Europe might “break up into small states” and that the world will “collapse” when both Iraqi Kurds and Catalans in Spain seek independence.

Vesti Nedeli underlined the clashes between police and independence supporters. It described the Spanish authorities’ policies towards Catalonia as “suicidal”. There is “a whiff of civil war”, claims the presenter on Rossiya 1, and one of the guests goes even further, saying “Spain stands at the beginning of a real civil, not even conflict, but war.”

Madrid was accused of creating an artificial conflict and the police actions were portrayed as “brutal” and “absolutely pointless”.

  1. Message: Europe follows double standards and democracy has failed

“Spanish democracy has failed,” the presenter of the talk show Voskresnoye Vremya stated. Europe was portrayed as denying “liberal Catalonians” the right to independence: “One can’t understand Europe any more. One feels sorry for Europe which has lost its way.”

One of the talk shows speculated around the conspiracy that Brussels would be interested in regional separatism to “weaken the power centres” of the EU states, and another one accused the EU of being a generator of conflicts.

Russian Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Maria Zakharova praised Russia’s freedom of expression on Sunday 1 October 2017 on TV channel Rossiya 1. In the latest 2017 World Press Freedom Index Russia ranks 148 out of 180 countries. Source for quote: Grani.ru.

  1. Message: putting Catalonia in the Ukrainian context

TV reports made repeated parallels between the Catalonian referendum and the situation in Ukraine. The emphasis was on criticising the Spanish authorities’ and the EU’s response to the referendum, making the parallel with blaming Ukraine for the war in the East of Ukraine.

“Is Spain repeating Ukraine’s mistakes?” a talk show on Rossiya 1 asked.

Although the usual “dissident” voices were allowed – this time, rejecting the comparison of Catalonia to Ukraine and saying that there was no history of separate identity in Donbas before the conflict – the majority of voices supported the claim that the Madrid government has failed to learn the lesson of what “happens when you try to impose a political choice by force”.

The likelihood of the Ukrainian regions of Donetsk and Luhansk breaking away from Ukraine was also discussed.  “If Russia recognises the republics, this will be the end because Ukraine will never have a chance to get them back”, one of the guests stated.

“There is a serious danger that Catalonia will become Europe’s Donbas and for the first time since 1945 a real civil war and real violence can break out” another talk show warned its audience.

  1. Message: the Russian context carefully avoided

According to Russian law, it’s illegal to publicly call for actions violating the territorial integrity of the Russian Federation. Hence, the possible parallels with Russia’s domestic issues were mostly absent.

One talk show allowed the question about referenda: If they are such a good thing why not hold them in places like Tatarstan or Chechnya? The presenter recalled immediately that the official Russian position is that the referendum in Catalonia is an internal matter for Spain.

The comparison with Chechnya was heard also on another talk show, where the guests rejected it, stating that “there was a civil war in Chechnya” and explaining that there is a difference between a large nation attempting to become independent and “a gang of terrorists proclaiming themselves independent.”

The media reports on Russia’s support for the Catalan movement were covered shortly and ridiculed on Russian TV.

By EU vs Disinfo

Categories: World News

Protesters rally across Russia on Putin's birthday - Northwest Herald

Northwest Russia - Sun, 10/08/2017 - 07:35

Protesters rally across Russia on Putin's birthday
Northwest Herald
MOSCOW – In a challenge to President Vladimir Putin on his 65th birthday, protesters rallied across Russia on Saturday, heeding opposition leader Alexei Navalny's call to pressure authorities into letting him enter the presidential race. Police allowed ...
Putin Welcomes Saudi Arabia Into His Middle East Sphere of InfluenceTIME

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Russia says it kills 180 extremists, mercenaries in Syria, claims Shishani's death - Jordan Times

Northwest Russia - Sun, 10/08/2017 - 00:23

Jordan Times

Russia says it kills 180 extremists, mercenaries in Syria, claims Shishani's death
Jordan Times
... it dismisses the observatory's reporting as biased. Moscow has been staging air strikes in support of its ally Damascus targeting both Daesh in Deir Ezzor province and rival extremists led by Al Qaeda's former Syria affiliate in Idlib province in ...
Russia Strikes Kill 120 ISIS fighters, Over 60 'Foreign Mercenaries' In Syria: MoscowNDTV
Russia strikes kill 120 IS fighters, over 60 'foreign mercenaries' in Syria: MoscowThe Sun Daily
Russian air strikes kill 14 civilians in eastern Syria as violence intensifiesThe New Arab
Gears Of Biz
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